Click links below to download the PDF
- Bladder Infections in Woman
A bladder infection or urinary tract infection (UTI) is a bacterial infection that affects any part of the urinary tract. When bacteria get into the bladder and multiply in the urine, it causes a UTI. The most common type of UTI is a bladder infection, which is also often called cystitis . Cystitis literally means an inflammation of the bladder.
- Hormone Therapy for Prostate Cancer
Hormone therapy for prostate cancer has come a long way in the past few decades. Not so long ago, the only hormonal treatment for this disease was drastic: an orchiectomy, the surgical removal of the testicles.
Now we have a number of medications -- available as pills, injections, and implants -- that can give men the benefits of decreasing male hormone levels without irreversible surgery.
- Kidney Stones
Kidney stones, one of the most painful of the urologic disorders, have beset humans for centuries. Scientists have found evidence of kidney stones in a 7,000-year-old Egyptian mummy. Unfortunately, kidney stones are one of the most common disorders of the urinary tract. Each year, people make almost 3 million visits to health care providers and more than half a million people go to emergency rooms for kidney stone problems.
- Kidney Tumours
Kidney tumours (or kidney tumors), also known as renal tumours, are tumours, or growths, on or in the kidney. These growths can be benign or malignant (cancerous). They may be discovered on medical imaging incidentally (i.e. an incidentaloma), or may be present in patients as an abdominal mass, hematuria, abdominal pain, or manifest first in a paraneoplastic syndrome that seems unrelated to the kidney.